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"Underground comix" is a term that encompasses various types of non-mainstream comic books, but it originally referred to the uncensored and rebellious comic books that emerged from the 1960s counterculture in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some sources claim that the spelling of "comix" with an "X" was a way of indicating the adult and explicit nature of the content, as well as the artistic freedom and experimentation of the creators. The underground comix of the 1960s and 1970s were heavily influenced by EC Comics, a postwar publisher that produced horror, crime, satire, and science fiction comics that challenged the social norms and conventions of the time. EC Comics faced censorship and criticism from moral crusaders, such as Dr. Fredric Wertham, who blamed comic books for juvenile delinquency and violence. In response to this pressure, the mainstream comic book industry adopted a self-regulatory code known as the Comics Code Authority (CCA), which imposed strict limitations on what could be shown or said in comic books. Underground comix rejected the CCA and embraced the themes and styles that were forbidden by the mainstream, such as drug use, sexuality, politics, rock music, and free love. They also paid tribute to EC Comics by using grotesque and irreverent humor, parodying popular culture icons, and experimenting with different genres and formats. Underground comix were distributed mainly through head shops, mail order, or underground newspapers, and they reached a large audience of counterculture enthusiasts who appreciated their subversive and radical messages. Some of the most notable underground comix artists include Robert Crumb, Gilbert Shelton, Trina Robbins, Spain Rodriguez, Kim Deitch, and Barbara "Willy" Mendes. Underground comix had a lasting impact on the comic book industry and culture, inspiring alternative comics , graphic novels , zines , punk comics , and independent publishers . They also influenced films and television shows that adopted their aesthetic and attitude."Here are a few more paragraphs:
One of the pioneers of underground comix was Frank Stack, a Texan college student who created a comic strip featuring Jesus Christ as a hippie in 1961. He distributed his comic strip among his friends under the pseudonym Foolbert Sturgeon, and later published it as The Adventures of Jesus in 1964. Stack's comic strip was one of the first examples of underground comix that challenged the religious and political establishment with satire and blasphemy.
Another influential figure in underground comix was Robert Crumb, who moved from Philadelphia to San Francisco in 1967 and became involved in the psychedelic scene. He started drawing comics for underground newspapers such as Yarrowstalks and Zap, and soon became famous for his characters such as Fritz the Cat, Mr. Natural, and Keep on Truckin'. Crumb's comics were full of sexual fantasies, social commentary, absurd humor, and personal confessions. He also collaborated with other underground comix artists such as S. Clay Wilson, Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, and Robert Williams to create Zap Comix, one of the most successful and influential underground comix titles.
Underground comix also gave voice to marginalized groups such as women, ethnic minorities, gays and lesbians, and political activists. Some of the notable underground comix that represented these perspectives include Wimmen's Comix, an all-female anthology that tackled issues such as feminism, abortion, rape, and sexuality; Binky Brown Meets the Holy Virgin Mary, an autobiographical comic by Justin Green that dealt with his obsessive-compulsive disorder and Catholic guilt; Gay Comix, a series that featured stories by gay and lesbian cartoonists such as Howard Cruse, Alison Bechdel, and Roberta Gregory; and Anarchy Comics, a collection of comics by anarchist artists from different countries such as Spain Rodriguez, Gilbert Shelton, Jay Kinney, and Paul Mavrides. 061ffe29dd